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RC0402FR-133K4L_Yageo_Chip Resistor - Surface Mount

来源:LM317 Electronics Components编辑:Comchip Technology时间:2021-06-15 14:47:53

You can see the detailed Table of Contents here, and the biographies of the numerous section authors here. (You can also download an extensive list of relevant acronyms here.)

The MMCM can have a fractional counter in either the feedback path (acting as a multiplier) or in one output path. Fractional counters allow non-integer increments of 1/8 and can thus increase frequency synthesis capabilities by a factor of 8.

The MMCM can also provide fixed or dynamic phase shift in small increments that depend on the VCO frequency. At 400 MHz the phase-shift timing increment is 44 ps; at 1600 MHz, it is 11.5 ps.

RC0402FR-133K4L_Yageo_Chip Resistor - Surface Mount

Clock Distribution Each Virtex-6 FPGA provides five different types of clock lines (BUFG, BUFR, BUFIO, BUFH, and the high-performance clock) to address the different clocking requirements of high fanout, short propagation delay, and extremely low skew.

Global Clock Lines In each Virtex-6 FPGA, 32 global-clock lines have the highest fanout and can reach every flip-flop clock, clock enable, set/reset, as well as many logic inputs. There are 12 global clock lines within any region. Global clock lines can be driven by global clock buffers, which can also perform glitchless clock multiplexing and the clock enable function. Global clocks are often driven from the CMT, which can completely eliminate the basic clock distribution delay.

Regional Clocks Regional clocks can drive all clock destinations in their region as well as the region above and below. A region is defined as any area that is 40 I/O and 40 CLB high and half the chip wide. Virtex-6 FPGAs have between 6 and 18 regions. There are 6 regional clock tracks in every region. Each regional clock buffer can be driven from either of four clock-capable input pins, and its frequency can optionally be divided by any integer from 1 to 8.

RC0402FR-133K4L_Yageo_Chip Resistor - Surface Mount

I/O Clocks I/O clocks are especially fast and serve only I/O logic and serializer/deserializer (SerDes) circuits, as described in the I/O Logic section. Virtex-6 devices have a high-performance direct connection from the MMCM to the I/O directly for low-jitter, high-performance interfaces.

Block RAM Virtex-6 FPGA Memory Resources User Guide Every Virtex-6 FPGA has between 156 and 1064 dual-port block RAMs, each storing 36 Kbits. Each block RAM has two completely independent ports that share nothing but the stored data.

RC0402FR-133K4L_Yageo_Chip Resistor - Surface Mount

Synchronous Operation Each memory access, read and write, is controlled by the clock. All inputs, data, address, clock enables, and write enables are registered. Nothing happens without a clock. The input address is always clocked, retaining data until the next operation. An optional output data pipeline register allows higher clock rates at the cost of an extra cycle of latency.During a write operation, the data output can reflect either the previously stored data, the newly written data, or remain unchanged.

Programmable Data Width

Introduction

Any engineer involved with portable or handheld products knows that minimizing power consumption is an absolute requirement for today's designs. But only the veterans understand the subtle yet important details that can stretch a systems' battery life to the maximum. In this article we'll focus on how those seasoned experts use ultra-low-power complex programmable logic devices (CPLDs) to wring out every last microwatt from the I/O subsystems of their embedded designs.

We'll begin by reviewing how CPLDs are commonly used to shrink power, board space and BOM costs in embedded designs. Next, we'll see how to minimize a CPLD's power consumption in its standby mode, not only by carefully selecting the device itself but also by choosing an appropriate bus parking scheme. Our exploration of power conservation during active operation will include techniques such as selective logic gating, smart I/O design and precision supply voltage management.

Download the full article.

Site Editor's Note : We are pleased to present the serialization of Chapter 2 of the just published book, LTE and the Evolution to 4G Wireless:Design and Measurement Challenges . The book is published by Agilent Technologies and is available through John Wiley & Sons, Inc. It goes deeply into the new 3GPP LTE cellular technology, from both the technical and practical point of view, before its projected deployment in 2010. Written by Agilent's measurement experts, this book offers valuable insight into the LTE air interface at the physical layer.

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