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how does an inductor work

来源:LM317 Electronics Components编辑:Antenova时间:2021-06-15 14:48:33

Dealing with noise and electromagnetic interference (EMI) is an inevitable challenge in any high-speed digital design. Digital signal processor (DSP)-based systems that handle audio-video and communication signals can be particularly vulnerable to these disruptions. The designer should know in advance the potential sources of noise and radiation, and design upfront to minimize these disruptions. Smart planning can save considerable time and rework in the debugging stage, thus saving overall time and cost.

Today's fastest DSPs run at internal clock rates in the gigahertz range, while transmitting and receiving signals at frequencies measuring in hundreds of megahertz. These fast-switching signals can generate considerable noise and radiation which degrade system performance and creates high levels of EMI. DSP systems are also becoming more complex, with audio and video interfaces, LCDs, wireless communications, Ethernet and USB controllers, power supplies, oscillators, drive controls and other circuitry—all of which can generate noise or be affected by interference from neighboring components. Audio-video systems are particularly vulnerable to these problems, since noise can cause subtle performance degradation that might not be apparent with discrete data.

how does an inductor work

It is essential to address noise and radiation problems from the very beginning of the design. Many new designs fail first-time electromagnetic compliance testing for Federal Communication Commission (FCC) certification. Investing a little time in low-noise and low-radiation design methods early in the design can minimize late-stage redesign costs and delays in the product shipment date. From the start of the design, developers should aim for:

• robust power sources with low switching noise under dynamic loading conditions,

• minimum crosstalk between high-speed signal traces,

how does an inductor work

• high- and low-frequency decoupling, and

• good signal integrity with minimum transmission line effects.

how does an inductor work

By working to achieve these goals, developers can avoid the pitfalls of noise and EMI.

The impact of noise

However, the decibel can be legitimately used with a voltage reference. The reference is 1.0 V. When voltage magnitudes are referenced to it logarithmically, they are called dBV (i.e., dB above or below 1.0 V). This use is legitimate because all such measurements are made open circuit and can easily be converted into power levels at any impedance interface.

The following definition is from the IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms, Second Edition :

244.62 Voltage Amplification (1) (general). An increase in signal voltage magnitude in transmission from one point to another or the process thereof. See also: amplifier. 210 (2) (transducer). The scalar ratio of the signal output voltage to the signal input voltage. Warning: By incorrect extension of the term decibel, this ratio is sometimes expressed in decibels by multiplying its common logarithm by 20. It may be currently expressed in decilogs. Note: If the input and/or output power consist of more than one component, such as multifrequency signal or noise, then the particular components used and their weighting must be specified. See also: Transducer.

239.210 Decilog (dg). A division of the logarithmic scale used for measuring the logarithm of the ratio of two values of any quantity. Note: Its value is such that the number of decilogs is equal to 10 times the logarithm to the base 10 of the ratio. One decilog therefore corresponds to a ratio of 100.1 (that is 1.25829+).

The Decibel as a Power Ratio Note that 20 W/10 W and 200 W/100 W both equal 3.01 dB, which means that a 2 to 1 (2:1) power ratio exists but reveals nothing about the actual powers. The human ear hears the same small difference between 1 W and 2 W as it does between 100 W and 200 W.

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