By implementing bonding pads directly on the active circuitry rather than externally, BCDMOS chip size can be significantly reduced. Moreover, much of the parasitic routing resistance can be reduced, although the Bond Over Active Circuitry (BOAC) technique does add some complexity to both device layout and packaging due to assembly-related design rules. With Thick Cu implementation, the BOAC approach can be used without any significant reliability issues simply because the Thick Cu metal can absorb ample stress during the bonding process. Figure 3 shows how conventional Al bonding requires more chip real estate compared to Thick Cu using the BOAC technique.

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来源:LM317 Electronics Components编辑:Walsin Technology时间:2021-06-15 15:41:04

By implementing bonding pads directly on the active circuitry rather than externally, BCDMOS chip size can be significantly reduced. Moreover, much of the parasitic routing resistance can be reduced, although the Bond Over Active Circuitry (BOAC) technique does add some complexity to both device layout and packaging due to assembly-related design rules. With Thick Cu implementation, the BOAC approach can be used without any significant reliability issues simply because the Thick Cu metal can absorb ample stress during the bonding process. Figure 3 shows how conventional Al bonding requires more chip real estate compared to Thick Cu using the BOAC technique.

The initial fiber master oscillator is diode laser pumped at 975 nm at the peak of the Yb absorption. The power amplifier is pumped at 1018 nm on the red shoulder of the 975-nm absorption peak (Fig. 18.7). Although this pump wavelength results in a lower absorption cross section, the brightness of the pumps is increased by more than two orders of magnitude, from about 30-W multimode diodes in 105-µm core (which was the limit for single-emitter fiber-coupled diode packages at the time of development) to 270-W single-mode fiber lasers. This increase allows for reduced cladding size, thus increasing the core-clad ratio and thereby compensating for the lower Yb core absorption cross-section. In addition, the scheme is synergistic in that it addresses the heat generation issue. The quantum defect when pumping at 1018 nm and emitting at 1070 nm is less than 5 percent, versus approximately 9 percent for 975-nm pumping. Therefore, about half as much heat overall is generated in the gain fiber. The resonant pumping scheme has also been reported to improve mode guidance for the fundamental mode versus high-order modes.2 Single-mode output power greater than 10 kW has been achieved to date using this resonant fiber laser pumping scheme.3 It is speculated that even 20 to 30 kW single mode may be feasible, with Raman and thermal issues considered to be the ultimate limitations.4

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About the Authors

2300_Datasheet PDF

Michael O'Connor is Director, Advanced Applications at IPG Photonics Corporation in Oxford, Massachusetts.  Bill Shiner is Vice President of Worldwide Sales at IPG Photonics Corporation in Oxford, Massachusetts

Excerpted from High Power Laser Handbook by Hagop Injegan and Gregory D. Goodno (McGraw-Hill; 2011) with permission by McGraw-Hill.

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As vehicle electronic content proliferates, electronic component quality and reliability must improve to maximize vehicle performance and reduce warranty issues. While component quality and reliability were always important, the new trend towards hybrid (HEV/PHEV) vehicles and battery-powered electric vehicles (BPEV) adds a new dimension.

Older gas power vehicles had only a minimum of electronics – an electronic component failure may have stopped the radio from working but not prevent anyone from getting home ok. Simple engine control functions where added, to improve engine efficiency and fuel economy. This created the need for quality and reliable components as a single component failure could stop the engine from functioning.  

This means that terms and concepts should map strictly 1:1. Never use different terms for the same concept, or the same term for different concepts. Even terms that are ambiguous in the real world should mean only one thing in the system . Otherwise, the system will be harder to learn and remember.

An example of different terms for the same concepts is provided by Earthlink's frequently asked questions (FAQ) page in the Web-hosting section of its site (see Fig. 11.10). In the question , the two available Web-hosting platforms are called Windows-based” and UNIX-based,” but in the table they are referred to as Standard” and ASP.” Customers have to stop and try to figure out which one is which. Do you know?

An example from Adobe Photoshop shows that inconsistent terminology can impede learning. Photoshop has two functions for replacing a target color in an image: Replace Color , which replaces the target color throughout an image with a new color, and PaintBucket , which replaces the target color in an enclosed area with a new color. Both functions have a parameter that specifies how similar a color in the image must be to the target color before it will be replaced. The inconsistency is that the Replace Color function calls this parameter Fuzziness,” but the Paint Bucket function calls it Tolerance” (see Fig. 11.11).

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