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formula for series and parallel circuits

来源:LM317 Electronics Components编辑:Comair Rotron时间:2021-06-14 04:18:26

The CIPOS module incorporates a three-phase inverter power stage with a SOI (silicon-on-insulator) gate driver, boot strap diodes and capacitors, and auxiliary circuitry in a compact, fully isolated package. Based on a combination of Infineon's TrenchStop IGBTs with VCEsat of 1.6V at 25°C and EmCon (emitter controlled) diode technology, the IPM significantly reduces the BOM compared to designs based on discrete components. The fully isolated package offers excellent thermal resistance and the CIPOS module shows a high ruggedness against negative transient voltage.

The only things people really buy are rights to play something,” said a senior technology executive from one Hollywood studio who asked not to be named. You don't buy the content of a $100 million movie,” he said.

The work is still in an early stage. Currently the group is trying to define the user scenarios its specification should support. It hopes to announce those scenarios at the Consumer Electronics Show in January where it could also announce more members.

formula for series and parallel circuits

We are in the very early stages of developing product attributes. This is just the beginning,” said Mitch Singer, the president of DECE, a Sony executive and veteran of many past digital media consortia.

Next year the group will have to turn its attention to the even harder job of writing a spec that lets developers start building complaint services. If done right, the group hopes consumers would see those services as more compelling than today's alternatives that include free illegal downloads and proprietary services such as Apple Inc.'s iTunes.

For instance, a user could log on to his secure DECE service to play on a handset at the airport part of a digital movie he had purchased. Later, he could log on again to finish watching the movie at a hotel, a friend's house or at home.

formula for series and parallel circuits

The challenge is to make that consumer promise come true,” said Alan Bell, chief technology officer of Paramount Studios and a DECE member. In the end, if the consumer experience is clunky, our time will have been wasted,” said Bell, one of the fathers of the DVD on which the new scheme is modeled.

Its way too early to tell if we are going to be successful, but we have the right companies talking,” said Singer.

formula for series and parallel circuits

DECE members include six major studios—Fox, Lions Gate, NBC Universal, Sony (a corporate member), Paramount and Warner Bros. as well as a host of technology companies such as Alcatel-Lucent, Cisco Systems, Hewlett-Packard, Intel, Microsoft, Philips, Toshiba and Verisign. Best Buy and Comcast are also members.

Notably absent are Apple, which dominates the media player market, and Disney, which accounts for as much as 40 percent of the home video market. Their absence isn't just a speed bump, it's a mountain range,” said Richard Doherty, principal of consulting form Envisioneering (Seaford, N.Y.)

Power Component Testing

To address power during functional operation, architectural-level power management techniques including multiple supply voltages (MSV) and power shutoff (PSO) are becoming more widely implemented. Such techniques can provide up to 80 percent dynamic power reduction, and several orders of magnitude reduction in leakage power. These designs have multiple power modes such that different regions (also called domains) of the design are powered on in each power mode.

From a DFT perspective, when test structures such as internal scan chains, test compression, memory BIST etc., are inserted into such designs, they must be operational in the target power modes. When testing the chip in a test mode corresponding to a power mode, the test structures and the controller macro that enables and maintains the different power modes should be fully controllable from the tester.

Many conventional test solutions 'override' these low power features and test with all domains powered ON. In a power-aware test methodology, the design's functional power modes are mapped to test modes for ATPG. The mapping must be such that we include at least one instance of each power domain in an on” condition which permits targeting active logic faults while testing the power domain isolation logic and on condition” verification. Similarly, we also need to include at least one instance of each power domain in an off” condition for verification and test generation purposes.

Another consideration is testing power component structures, including power controllers, power switches, and state retention (SR) flops; structures used for functional power management. During manufacturing test, defects in these low power components must be accurately modeled and tested. For example, conventional structural testing is not sufficient for testing logic that supports power shutoff and mode transitions because conventional ATPG and fault models do not sufficiently account for logic being powered down. For example, after powering down the domain containing a SR cell, it is possible the SR may be functioning incorrectly by not retaining the state it was loaded with initially. Power-component-aware testing is now supported by commercial DFT and ATPG tools.

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