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MTLW-106-07-S-S-186

来源:LM317 Electronics Components编辑:Digi-Key时间:2021-06-14 05:19:54

With an increased level of Layer 4-7 functions, the data flow associated with today's services has become more complex (see Figure 1 ). A larger number of packets now need additional processing ” at wire speed ” and some must utilize several resources before they can be forwarded by the switch to their final destination. An encrypted packet, for example, arrives at an NPU only to be sent off to a security co-processor before coming back to that NPU for processing and forwarding to its end destination. In short, the straight, linear data plane is yielding to a complex traffic pattern that can be different for each packet that passes through the system.

In a typical server system, even if the server power is 48 volts dc, there is always an ac power source. This primary power source is often neglected when looking for the sources of power loss and heat. Today there are standards on how much distortion can be introduced onto the Power grid, making it necessary to add power factor correction to the input of the Bulk regulator or ac to dc power system.

The next stage is usually a traditional isolated dc-dc converter that may be housed in a standard brick type converter and finally several POL converters distributed through out the server and located close to the critical circuits (figure 1). The power of each of these circuits has also increased as more memory was added to the computer systems; more complex chip sets were added to enable increased parallel operation of the processors and faster I/O to the processors. (The distribution of these loads is illustrated in figure 2).

MTLW-106-07-S-S-186

Figure 1: Server power delivery systems use three power stages: One with power factor correction (PFC) to convert an AC line voltage to a –48V DC distribution voltage. An intermediate supply converts this to the 12V used by each circuit card.

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Figure 2: Each card in a server will need to power a high-current processor (often a 100-amp Pentium), banks of memory devices, and several ASICs, each with their own regulated voltage and current requirements.

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Another hardware challenge is keeping the bill of materials (BOM) cost as low as possible. This is achieved by integrating into silicon as much functionality as possible.

Nice and easy The software used in residential gateways helps improve their plug-and-play capability. The easier the device is to use, the higher the customer satisfaction and the higher the likelihood that users will adopt new services and use them routinely. Easy security set up and the ability to help customers troubleshoot problems at their location are essential.

To simplify things, service providers want to use the gateways to manage the services they deliver to their customers' networks. They want end-to-end visibility into the services. Devices that give the service providers diagnostic and troubleshooting tools that enable them to sort out problems at the customer premises are desirable. While these are the challenges being addressed today by software, software will soon be called upon to support emerging services such as mobile VoIP handoffs from cell phones moving into the home network's range, roaming, and video-based services.

Because ease of use is such an important factor, designers should incorporate into the gateway modular and flexible software with a rich API that makes it easy for equipment makers to design gateways to meet their unique networking requirements. For this reason, gateways should support real-time and embedded operating systems. They should integrate, and work with, multiple technologies and enable end users to build and use custom applications.

Another software challenge is maintaining system performance while providing multi-level QoS support for each data interface on the board. The gateway's DSL, Ethernet, and WLAN interfaces each have their own restrictions and QoS levels. It can be a challenge to integrate several interfaces in the box's single processor. Designers must integrate and optimize QoS at every level and put it into one OS using one CPU.

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