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infrared sensors applications

来源:LM317 Electronics Components编辑:Brady Corporation时间:2021-06-15 13:55:12

To that end, Rambus, Mountain View, Calif., has made a series of executive management changes and is ready to open its wallet to acquire the technology it needs to tackle new end applications.

The Princeton research into defining large-area circuits on diverse substrates represents an application of RTP processes in the opposite direction-to large features on macroscopic circuits.

The basic strategy in all RTP processes is to limit the thermal budget” of a particular reaction. For example, by briefly heating a substrate with a radiative lamp, a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth reaction can take place over a short time without appreciably heating the substrate. In a thin film of silicon, the temperature can ramp up at a rate of 100C per second. The smaller the feature, the shorter the growth time and the total amount of heat delivered to the process.

infrared sensors applications

Thus, as features shrink in size, RTP becomes more workable as an alternative to placing wafers in a furnace.

RTP CVD equipment has been proliferating to meet the need to deposit very thin films of silicon, silicon-germanium, metal and dielectric materials. While the technique works well in terms of reducing the thermal damage to neighboring structures in a circuit, and also allows for fast throughput, issues such as the uniformity and repeatability of the process have to be addressed. Ultimately, the uniformity of deposited films from one wafer to the next is the central issue that affects yield in a manufacturing line.

A typical RTP CVD reactor consists of a quartz chamber that contains the wafer and the CVD gases. Halogen lamps located outside the chamber deliver heat to the wafer, and temperature sensors such as a pyrometer or enclosed thermocouples are used to monitor the temperature of the process. Due to the quick temperature ramp-up, a computer control system is inserted between the sensors and the heat lamps. Not only does computer control ensure the quality of the final product, the rapid turn-off of the heat source can be used as a switch to precisely control the thickness of deposited films.

infrared sensors applications

Commercial RTP reactors can process 10 to 20 wafers/hour.

Samsung Electronics' 1999 chip sales are expected to reach $7.1 billion, an increase of 33 percent over the previous year, according to Yoon Woo Lee, president of Samsung Semiconductors.

infrared sensors applications

Memory chips will account for 85 percent comprised of semiconductor sales, or $6 billion, he said Monday in a briefing in Kiheung, South Korea.

Memories continue to dominate Samsung's chip sales despite the company's long-running efforts to boost non-memory semiconductor sales. However, Lee said the non-memory chip sales are growing — expected to top $1.1 billion this year — while DRAM , SRAM , and flash sales are increasing, as well.

The resolution of the converter is extremely important. As with many things, you get the quality for which you pay. Since the DSP is generating 32 bits of decoded data, it is extremely important that the converters can process this information and output to the amplifier, and from there to the loudspeakers, with minimum distortion and truncation. In this example, the high-resolution 24-bit, 192-kHz AD1853 D/A converter from Analog Devices offers the best combination of THD+N (-107 dB), dynamic range (120 dB) and out-of-band noise (115 dB) available.

Thirty-two-bit decoding becomes necessary when the quantization noise generated by the decoder algorithm exceeds the DAC's 24-bit noise floor, which introduces audible noise and distortion. Implementing double-precision routines and error-feedback schemes to work around the noise-floor problem adds DSP computation overhead by a factor ranging between 4 and 10. This would leave no room for the DSP to do any other task, which means that end-product or system designers might have to consider using multiple DSPs in their design, which would hike the cost.

Dolby Digital is already implemented in several high- and mid-range systems in the home-theater domain. Several Dolby-Digital-encoded PC games have also started to appear, enabling hard-core game enthusiasts to enjoy the sensation of being immersed in sound while they traverse fantastic and futuristic worlds. New applications are appearing, thanks to the development of technologies that enable the reproduction of virtual surround sound; that is, the effect of having five speakers around you when you actually have only two physical speakers installed.

What is important is that as DSP architectures evolve, and as Moore's Law ensures that consumers get more bang for their silicon buck with each year, decoder vendors will relentlessly add features. Consumers will soon have no more excuses for not sharing in the surround-sound experience.

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