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how to use a transistor

来源:LM317 Electronics Components编辑:Future Technology Devices International, Ltd.时间:2021-06-14 03:54:25

A companion technique which can reduce the amount of scaling required is rearranging the structure of an algorithm's implementation. By choosing to implement a cascaded rather than direct filter form (detailed in advanced texts) the designer has the option of implementing intermediate sub-stage specific scaling. This intermediate scaling often results in smaller sub-stage scaling than would be required for an equivalent direct form filter implementation.

Playing downloaded movies anywhere in the house; quickly sending video clips to friends half-a-world away; low-cost long distance telephony—all these possibilities and many more are coming soon to all sorts of electronic appliances due to the new 11n standard being developed by the IEEE standards body and by industry groups.

And while the standard is not expected to be finally ratified until next year, the current draft 11n” is robust enough that products are beginning to appear in the market that would, if needed, likely require only software upgrades to meet the final specification.While earlier 802.11a/g Wireless LAN standards set a ceiling on transmission at 54 Mbps, the new 11n standard reaches up to 600 Mbps at the physical layer (PHY). This new standard sets a relatively low ceiling for performance (65 Mbps PHY rates for stations), but allows for the deployment of numerous optional features to reach that 600 Mbps level.This is more than enough capability to stream a motion picture of choice to a number of HD monitors around the home, to allow students to do homework online in their rooms, and to permit another family member to download music and maps for an upcoming trip—all simultaneously on a single 11n network.Figure 1 shows a typical 11n-enabled digital home, a number of different technology segments have vested interests in this new standard.Click here for Fig. 1

how to use a transistor

Three such examples, each with its unique requirements, are:

Since this one standard must meet the demands of very diverse applications, it must be flexible without carrying unnecessary overhead required for unused applications. For this reason, there are both basic mandatory features, as well as a host of optional features, available within the 11n specification. This paper provides a top line summary of these mandatory and optional features, and their technical attributes, to help the engineer design the right wireless product for the right market.

One mandatory PHY feature The key new mandatory feature at the PHY level of the 11n standard is an improved OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) which, in 802.11a/g, allowed transmissions up to 54 Mbps. This new, more efficient flavor of OFDM increases the rate to a minimum 65 Mbps in a minimum single stream, 20 MHz data rate. (Using optional multiple streams and 40 MHz channels can greatly increase that rate, as we will see.)

how to use a transistor

Optional PHY features to improve throughput and capacity In addition to the mandated use of the improved” OFDM, these optional features for the PHY layer are designed to improve throughput and capacity to get to the 600 Mbps speed, though these will roll out at different times in the PC, CE and HH markets.

Click here for Fig. 2

how to use a transistor

Optional PHY features to improve coverage and range Other optional PHY features are suggested to improve coverage and range.

Mandatory at the MAC level

Another key aspect of the full TBSV solution is a hybrid mode that combines transaction-based acceleration with in-circuit emulation in a single run. This capability enables verification scenarios that incorporate multiple concurrent sources of stimuli, originating both from software testbenches as well as physical target systems. This helps verification and validation teams to migrate their verification process smoothly from simulation to silicon, while optimizing performance.

A common debug environment makes it easy to debug across multiple abstraction levels and language domains. It also allows you to trace and capture transactions, signals and unified assertions in a single window, even when using multiple engines. It is also important to make sure your debug environment offers a comprehensive set of transaction-oriented recording, visualization and analysis including the ability to measure bus bandwidth utilization, peripheral usage, processor memory accesses and functional coverage. A unified debugging environment will improve engineering productivity, and help streamline communication between architects, hardware designers, verification specialists and software developers.

Verification IP Libraries are also a very important factor in a TBSV approach. To fully support the methodology, make sure your solution also offers three Verification IP (VIP) libraries as follows:

Last but not least, you need a supporting methodology with on-line capabilities and a full knowledge system to help guide teams through the entire adoption process from initial plan to full system-level closure. A methodology that explains in detail how to incorporate TLMs into a simulation environment and how to leverage the same SystemC / RTL mixed environment and VIP in simulation and acceleration.

Summary Transaction-based system verification has emerged as a strategic approach for verifying complex systems. By leveraging the abstraction power of SystemC TLM and the accelerated run-time performance, Transaction-based system verification will help you and your team through the complete system verification process and enable you to maximize VIP reuse. In other word, you will be at an advantage by gaining a holistic view into your overall design and verification process. When it comes time to make a choice in the area of transaction level verification, make sure to choose an end-to-end solution. And one that includes the tools, integration, VIP and methodology that teams need to rapidly adopt and take full advantage of across your entire enterprise.

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