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MSIM API is a matrix-inversion based circuit simulator module with, according to the company, optimized algorithms and extensive modeling support.

There may be unsuspected constraints in physical systems that manifest themselves only in correlated data. The standard statistical approaches may not reveal these correlations, which was one impetus for Fischbach and Tu to develop deeper tests of randomness.

My view is that each test gives some new piece of information about possible nonrandom behavior, so that no single test tells the whole story,” Fischbach said. This shows up in our family of Grip tests, where some random-number generators do better on some of our tests than on others.”

Pi exemplifies the dilemma of how to ensure that a sequence of digits is random. The most basic test is to look at a large number of sequences taken from a digital stream and statistically determine that any sequence is equally likely. Actually, pi passes this test easily. And yet, once someone knows that a sequence of apparently random digits is taken from the decimal expansion of pi, the remaining sequence becomes absolutely predictable and is therefore not random at all.

For cryptographers, this issue is moot since they use random-number generators that, like pi, mimic randomness and are therefore difficult to detect by simply analyzing the data they produce.

The advent of high-speed computers opens the possibility of decrypting even sophisticated codes,” said Fischbach. One way to get around this is to use what is called a 'one-time keypad,' which is essentially a string of random numbers. In military communications, where absolute secrecy is essential, random numbers would also be essential.” Whatever deeper patterns might be discerned in such a sequence, they would not be much help in predicting subsequent digits in the stream.

Fischbach and Tu developed the Grip approach to probe more deeply into the apparent randomness of algorithmically generated sequences. The basic idea is to use sequences of digits from a stream to define vectors in three-dimensional space and then test the configuration of points for randomness. For example, the first 10 digits of pi are treated as a decimal expansion of a number between 0 and 1. Then, the next 10 digits are selected and placed behind a decimal point to create another number between 0 and 1. Three such numbers, generated by the first 30 digits of pi, define a vector inside a three-dimensional cube.

If such a distribution of vectors is completely random, averaging the inner products of the vectors will produce a number that depends only on the dimension of the cube, in this case 3, and the square of the length of the side. Deviations from this ideal number, therefore, offer a means of ranking different numerical sequences on a scale of randomness.

Interestingly, the 30 most common random-number generators scored differently on different tests. And pi often seemed to fare the best, although in a few instances it fell behind some of the standard random-number generators.

Santa Clara, CA — CEL has just introduced two new miniature prescalers from NEC: the UPB1512TU (divide by 8) and the UPB1513TU (divide by 4). Designed for operating frequencies of 5 to 13 GHz, they are well suited for V-SAT, FRS, GMRS, and SMR, as well as FWA and other applications that require a divide” function.

Sunnyvale, Calif. — A dual serial ATA (SATA) II physical layer (PHY) chip from TaraCom Integrated Products Inc. offers jitter tolerance that exceeds the SATA specification of 3-Gbits/s.

The TRC3002 is claimed to be the industry's first SATA PHY that operates from a 1-V supply, consuming just 70 mW per channel in Gen I mode and 100 mW per channel in Gen II mode. Each channel consists of one transmitter and one receiver, according to Farhad Haghighi, chief executive of TaraCom.

Our SerDes part works from a mere 1-Volt supply. This will not only allow low power PHY, it will also enable the whole SoC to work from 1-V supply, therefore reducing the total power consumption. That translates into higher reliability and lower packaging cost,” he said.

High jitter tolerance is a key SerDes parameter, he explained. It is a reflection of how well the SerDes can reject noise whether from other components integrated in the SoC or caused by noise and bandwidth limitation of the system,” he said.

While the TRC3002 complies with SATA II standards, it also includes a standard parallel interface to higher-level logic. It enables data transfer rates of 150- and 300-Megabytes.

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