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来源:LM317 Electronics Components编辑:nVent Schroff时间:2021-06-14 04:14:04

Switch design benefits Switches that can be used in either multi-converter or single-converter designs benefit product design. Cost-effectiveness is another important aspect of a switch from both an installation and consumer standpoint, considering that smart meters will require maintenance and to ensure proper data reporting over their life spans. In-service testing has changed over the years as electronic meters have been incorporated within utility service areas.

The second issue has to do with the increased use of purchased semiconductor Intellectual Property (IP) blocks. On average, every design brings together 50 to 100 different IPs that need to work well together. In most cases, designers who are using the IPs either do not know the inside of the IP well or do not have the information, which then adds tremendous difficulty during integration and verification because inter-IP issues are becoming predominant.  It befits EDA providers to make inter-block RTL analysis possible.

By analogy, the first issue can be compared to the need for a hierarchical approach and the second issue to the increased importance of parasitic extraction as most delays reside outside the gates. In this article, we will show how Blue Pearl enables a methodology that relieves both issues with the Grey Cell methodology. Blue Pearl Software discussed this concept at DAC2012 (see What Color is Your Semiconductor IP Box?)

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What is a Grey Cell? A Grey Cell, as depicted in Figure 1, is a representation of a module that excludes all register-to-register logic. It contains only the logic from each input up to and including the nearest register, and all logic from each output back to and including the nearest register. A grey cell differs from a black box in that a black box has no logic inside. Grey cells enable the analysis of module-to-module connections while making abstraction of the details and/or preserving the trade secrets of the original IP provider.

When a module is declared as a Grey Cell, Blue Pearl will disable some checks e.g. dangling nets, since the module does not contain the complete RTL representation. In general, IP providers will specify to their customers when they are providing a Grey Cell model. However, in case a designer sees superfluous messages for a purchased IP, the designer should confirm with the IP provider if indeed a Grey Cell model.

It is straightforward to define a module as a Grey Cell using the Blue Pearl Software Suite. The designer has to select the module and then declare it as a Grey Cell in the Module Options menu, as shown in Figure 2.

RN55C22R1BRE6_Vishay Dale

Using the Blue Pearl Software Suite to handle massive designs To illustrate the leading issue described in the first section of this article, let’s assume that all the cells shown in Figure 3 are part of the same module. In this portion of the design, the Blue Pearl Software Suite has detected a clock domain crossing (CDC) starting at the flip-flop labeled previous_complete” and ending at the flip-flop labeled repeated_access_ack”. Notice that the path is completely contained within the module. The designer would thus take the necessary action to fix any CDC issues within the module.

As this module is being integrated within a bigger design, one may not want to keep all the details within the module. If the module is defined as a Grey Cell, all the elements within the red circle (see Figure 4) will NOT  be included in the analysis thus enabling the designer to analyze bigger designs a lot faster. Let’s note that the number of elements in the circle can be quite significant, meaning one can abstract a lot of design details as low level modules pass the RTL analysis checks.

RN55C22R1BRE6_Vishay Dale

When a module is declared as a Grey Cell, the Blue Pearl Software Suite will eliminate all register-to-register logic from the internal model, thus saving analysis effort and run time.

Using Blue Pearl Software to handle designs with a large number of IP blocks To illustrate the second issue described in the first section of this article, let’s assume we have a design that contains numerous purchased IPs. The industry is rapidly demanding that IP sub-systems work well together to reduce time spent on integration and verification. As an example, a Memory IP sub-system would include the memory controller, the PHY and the Verification IP.  Northwest Logic, one of Blue Pearl Software customers, is diligently working with its partners to perform this early verification however this is not a widely adopted practice today.

Members spent as much as a third of their latest three-day meeting at the end of October discussing new techniques for software-defined optical networks to serve cloud computing. There are a number of possible projects being talked about,” said Jonathan Sadler, chair of the technical committee for the OIF, a group of more than 70 vendors and carriers.

One that carriers are particularly interested involves creating optical networks that can automatically add wavelengths as needed. The capability is particularly needed for Web service providers linking geographically separate data centers.

Today optical networks have no ability to make requests for more bandwidth,” said Sadler who is also part of an optical systems product planning group at Tellabs (Naperville, Ill.). You need something with a higher view of the network that understands what’s going on in the optical transport and packet space, and how this ties into transport could become a project at OIF,” he said.

Google disclosed earlier this year it is using OpenFlow, an open source implementation of software-defined networks to link some of its data centers. The big difference is they aren’t using SDN to set up optical connections but to steer packet traffic,” Sadler said.

The OIF is about to put out for ballot a document that provides a common way to describe optical and packet networks using a multilayer control plane. The document has been in the works for several years and could help carriers automate processes where traffic moves across electrical and optical domains.

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